Report on the Delegation of the سودان (“sudan”) country code top-level domain representing Sudan in Arabic script to Sudan Internet Society
14 April 2015
This report is being provided under the contract for performance of the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) function between the United States Government and the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). Under that contract, ICANN performs the “IANA functions”, which include receiving delegation and redelegation requests concerning TLDs, investigating the circumstances pertinent to those requests, making its recommendations, and reporting actions undertaken in connection with processing such requests.
The “SD” ISO 3166-1 code from which the application’s eligibility derives, is designated for use to represent Sudan.
The domain under consideration for delegation at the DNS root level is “سودان”. This is represented in ASCII-compatible encoding according to the IDNA specification as “xn--mgbpl2fh”. The individual Unicode code points that comprise this string are U+0633 U+0648 U+062F U+0627 U+0646.
In Arabic, the string has a transliteration equivalent to “sudan” in English. The string is expressed using the Arabic script.
Chronology of events
In 2002, “Sudan Internet Society” was founded as a non-governmental organization. That same year, the .SD (Sudan) top-level domain was redelegated from Sudan OnLine, Inc. to the Sudan Internet Society.
On 19 September 2011 an application was made to the IDN ccTLD Fast Track String Selection Process to have the string “سودان” recognized as representing Sudan.
On 1 November 2012, a review by the IDN Fast Track DNS Stability Panel found that "the applied-for string ... presents none of the threats to the stability or security of the DNS identified in Module 4 of the Fast Track implementation plan, and presents an acceptably low risk of user confusion". The request for the string to represent Sudan was subsequently approved.
On 22 January 2015, Sudan Internet Society commenced a request to ICANN for delegation of “سودان” as a top-level domain.
Proposed Sponsoring Organisation and Contacts
The proposed sponsoring organization is Sudan Internet Society, an entity established in 2002 to manage the .SD top-level domain. It is also the ISOC chapter of Sudan “with over 700 members from all around Sudan...and from the whole Internet community” including ISPs, NGOs, universities, and end users.
The proposed administrative contact is Dr. Nadir Gaylani, President, Sudan Internet Society. The administrative contact is understood to be based in Sudan.
The proposed technical contact is Tarik Merghani, Chief Technology Officer, Sudan Internet Society.
Evaluation of the Request
The top-level domain is eligible for delegation under ICANN policy, as the string has been deemed an appropriate representation of Sudan through the ICANN ccTLD Fast Track String Selection process, and Sudan is presently listed in the ISO 3166-1 standard.
Explicit government support for the application was provided in a letter signed by Eng. Esadg Fadlalla SbahElkhir Mohamed, Acting Minister of Communication and Information Technology, Republic of Sudan.
Additional support was provided by the following:
- The National Telecom Corporation (NTC), the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority of Sudan;
- The Sudanese Research and Education Network (SudREN), an NGO that supports the Sudanese educational and research sector;
- Sudan University of Science and Technology;
- Al Neelain University;
- The University of Khartoum.
The application is consistent with known applicable local laws in Sudan. The proposed sponsoring organization undertakes to operate the domain in a fair and equitable manner.
Based in country
The proposed sponsoring organization is constituted in Sudan. The proposed administrative contact is understood to be resident in Sudan. The registry is to be operated in the country.
The application does not involve a transfer of domain operations from an existing domain registry, and therefore stability aspects relating to registry transfer have not been evaluated.
The application is not known to be contested.
The application has provided information on the technical and operational infrastructure and expertise that will be used to operate the proposed new domain. The proposed operator is the current manager of .SD country-code top-level domain for Sudan.
Proposed policies for management of the domain have also been tendered.
ICANN is tasked with coordinating the Domain Name System root zone as part of a set of functions governed by a contract with the U.S. Government. This includes accepting and evaluating requests for delegation and redelegation of top-level domains.
A subset of top-level domains are designated for the local Internet communities in countries to operate in a way that best suits their local needs. These are known as country-code top-level domains (ccTLDs), and are assigned by ICANN to responsible trustees (known as “Sponsoring Organisations”) that meet a number of public-interest criteria for eligibility. These criteria largely relate to the level of support the trustee has from its local Internet community, its capacity to ensure stable operation of the domain, and its applicability under any relevant local laws.
Through ICANN’s IANA department, requests are received for delegating new ccTLDs, and redelegating or revoking existing ccTLDs. An investigation is performed on the circumstances pertinent to those requests, and, when appropriate, the requests are implemented and a recommendation for delegation or redelegation is made to the U.S. National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA).
Purpose of evaluations
The evaluation of eligibility for ccTLDs, and of evaluating responsible trustees charged with operating them, is guided by a number of principles. The objective of the assessment is that the action enhances the secure and stable operation of the Internet’s unique identifier systems.
In considering requests to delegate or redelegate ccTLDs, input is sought regarding the proposed new Sponsoring Organisation, as well as from persons and organisations that may be significantly affected by the change, particularly those within the nation or territory to which the ccTLD is designated.
The assessment is focussed on the capacity for the proposed sponsoring organisation to meet the following criteria:
- The domain should be operated within the country, including having its sponsoring organisation and administrative contact based in the country.
- The domain should be operated in a way that is fair and equitable to all groups in the local Internet community.
- Significantly interested parties in the domain should agree that the prospective trustee is the appropriate party to be responsible for the domain, with the desires of the national government taken very seriously.
- The domain must be operated competently, both technically and operationally. Management of the domain should adhere to relevant technical standards and community best practices.
- Risks to the stability of the Internet addressing system must be adequately considered and addressed, particularly with regard to how existing identifiers will continue to function.
Method of evaluation
To assess these criteria, information is requested from the applicant regarding the proposed sponsoring organisation and method of operation. In summary, a request template is sought specifying the exact details of the delegation being sought in the root zone. In addition, various documentation is sought describing: the views of the local internet community on the application; the competencies and skills of the trustee to operate the domain; the legal authenticity, status and character of the proposed trustee; and the nature of government support fort he proposal. The view of any current trustee is obtained, and in the event of a redelegation, the transfer plan from the previous sponsoring organisation to the new sponsoring organisation is also assessed with a view to ensuring ongoing stable operation of the domain.
After receiving this documentation and input, it is analysed in relation to existing root zone management procedures, seeking input from parties both related to as well as independent of the proposed sponsoring organisation should the information provided in the original application be deficient. The applicant is given the opportunity to cure any deficiencies before a final assessment is made.
Once all the documentation has been received, various technical checks are performed on the proposed sponsoring organisation’s DNS infrastructure to ensure name servers are properly configured and are able to respond to queries correctly. Should any anomalies be detected, ICANN staff will work with the applicant to address the issues.
Assuming all issues are resolved, an assessment is compiled providing all relevant details regarding the proposed sponsoring organisation and its suitability to operate the relevant top-level domain.